Sélection d'auteurs
1 janvier 1997
Peter Selz
Professor Emeritus, Department of Art History, University of California, Berkeley. Former Curator at the Museum of Modern Art in New York and founding director of the Berkeley Art Museum.
Helnwein Monograph
The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg
Helnwein: L’Artiste, le Provocateur
Tout comme Joseph Beuys qui ouvrit à l’art de nouveaux horizons, Helnwein a créé des œuvres qui entrent dans le domaine sociale et politique. A l’instar de son prédécesseur, il évolue au-delà du domaine de l’esthétique pure, engageant son art dans le monde du quotidien. Ce qui l’intéresse avant tout est de dresser des constats qui transcendent l’individu. Il refuse de voir ses travaux pris au piège sur les murs des musées et galeries, les veut accessibles à tous dans les lieux publics. A ces fins, le spectateur doit évidemment réagir à l’œuvre d’art qui, après tout, ne représente que la moitié du processus de communication. Les tableaux et les photographies d’Helnwein, si précis dans le message qu’elles véhiculent, facilitent effectivement notre participation en tant que spectateurs, une participation nécessaire à la transmission. Utilisant une profusion de médias, Gottfried Helnwein nous entraîne dans un monde de réflexion controversée.
The last Days of Pompeii II
photograph, 1987
In 1979 Gottfried Helnwein painted a watercolor of a pretty little girl asleep on the table, her head on her plate and a spoon next to her hand. Its title is "Life not Worth Living," and its text, an integral part of the work, reads:
"Dear Dr. Gross! When I was watching 'Holocaust' (the TV program), I thought again about your attitude as reported in the Kurier. And since this is the Year of the Child, I want to take this opportunity to thank you on behalf of the children who were taken to heaven under your care. I want to thank you that they were not 'injected to death' as you have called it, but simply died by having poison mixed into their meals. With German Greetings, Yours, Gottfried Helnwein."
The watercolor was prompted by an interview in which Dr. Heinrich Gross was asked by a reporter about the Nazi's euthanasia program in which he and other physicians had killed children considered "not worth living." He tried to vindicate his murders by claiming that he simply poisoned their food, so that they could die quietly and without pain.
When, in 1979, this same man became Austrian head of state psychiatry, no one so much as wrote a letter of protest. Helnwein, incensed over this profound political apathy, painted the watercolor, appended the sarcastic letter, and published it in a Viennese journal. His painting-cum-letter aroused discussion and was probably the cause for Gross' subsequent resignation in disgrace. By this time Helnwein was well aware that art can have a bearing on life.
Although the watercolor at first glance resembles the paintings of American photorealists of the period, it also differs significantly. Like their work, it is based on precise and detailed observation and is done with a meticulous and pristine manner of finish. But Helnwein diverges sharply from the photorealists in the meaningful content that is the essence of his work. For him, art, like philosophy, raises moral issues and becomes a denotative method of instruction, often by subverting accepted norms and by provoking social change, it does not simply reflect on itself. The British-American painter Malcolm Morley, considered the first of the photorealist painters, asserted: "I have no interest in subject matter as such or satire or social comment or anything lumped together with subject matter... I accept the subject matter as a by-product of the surface." For Helnwein, by contrast, the What of a picture is more important than the How. He is a master of paradox, and much of his work is characterized by its ambiguity.
Helnwein frequently turned to children for his subjects — children as innocent, weak, defenseless, and abused objects victimized by adults. Typical also is a work such as "Embarrassing" (1971), a watercolor depicting a small girl in her Sunday dress, sitting on the floor against a white wall. Her bandaged left hand is placed on a comic book, while her other emaciated arm and bandaged hand dangle on her right. A horrible wound cuts across her face from nose to chin and neck, while her eyes bulge. No expression or affect appears in this doll-like child's face.
What, we must ask, prompted this artist to turn to images of suffering, torture, and death? We must remember that during the postwar years, when Helnwein was growing up in Vienna, nobody spoke of the brutality of the Nazi period. Memories were suppressed, and Austria's unrestrained embrace of Nazi savagery was denied as the country attempted to pose as the "first victim of Fascism." This depressing silence on the part of the Austrian petit-bourgeoisie was very difficult for Gottfried to accept - he was a rebellious child, interested in social and political questions, and curious and inquisitive about the recent past.
Two further experiences left an indelible impression on the young man; they are keys to his later works as an artist. He endured a very strict Catholic upbringing, especially a suppressive and punishing parochial school system, with its dogma of guilt and demand for humility. Omnipresent in school, in church, were pictures and statues of Christ's flagellation, the crowning with thorns, the crucifixion, as well as graphic depictions of the stoning of St. Stephen, St. Sebastian's arrow-pierced body, the cutting off of St. Agatha's breasts - all torments to which Christian saints were subjected - and these saints' apparent ecstasy as cherubim came flying down, offering the palm of martyrdom.
In total contrast to this plethora of paintings of agony was Helnwein's first elated encounter with the pictorial universe of Walt Disney. Though scorned and considered dangerous by school authorities, here was a beam of light. Later, in 1984, claiming that he had learned more from Disney than from Leonardo da Vinci, the artist visited Carl Barks in California to pay homage to the inventor of Donald Duck and Uncle Scrooge McDuck. And when Gottfried Helnwein first saw a picture of Elvis Presley on a chewing-gum card, he was enchanted.
Last Supper
cibachrome, 1987
It is true, of course, that major artists have for a long time been involved in popular art, often at the beginning of their careers. Toulouse-Lautrec and Pierre Bonnard were among the finest designers of art nouveau travel posters. Both Matisse and Picasso designed French travel posters. Giacomo Balla, preceded by James Ensor, incorporated graffiti in his paintings. Kurt Schwitters, master of detritus, used everything from used train tickets to comic strips in his Merz collages, and Richard Lindner spent many years as an illustrator and art director before turning to painting. Andy Warhol designed shoe advertisements; James Rosenquist made big billboards for Times Square; Lyonel Feininger, followed by Öyvind Fahlstrom and Robert Crumb, actually produced comic strips; and Roy Lichtenstein based his early work on the comics, while Claes Oldenburg in the early 1970s designed the Maus Museum in honor of the great animator. Helnwein then clearly belongs to a viable tradition in modern art, a tradition in total opposition to the formalist and puritanical construct of a critic like Clement Greenberg, who juxtaposed avant-garde with kitsch, proclaiming that a work of art must transcend the chaos of modern life.
The very essence of postmodernism is the interconnectedness that erases boundaries between different aspects of culture, whether high or low, in favor of creating polymorphous paradigms of multicultural values. Rarely, however, has an artist so thoroughly inverted Walter Benjamin's misgivings about lack of authenticity and the aura of uniqueness of a work of art in the era of mechanical reproduction. Helnwein has done this by embracing all the possibilities of technological processes to bring art to the widest possible public. To this end, he uses offset lithography, posters, magazine covers, photographs, and large murals in the public area. By his carefully calculated appearance and dress he even makes his own person into a popular idol.
Early Years, Education and Rebellion
Gottfried Helnwein looks back at his education in a Catholic gymnasium as a catastrophe, and his goal has been largely to undermine and destroy the repressive system based on the hateful intolerance instilled by the Christian religion, which he considers the primary source of fascism. He completely despised and rejected the school system and his only desire was to paint. He abandoned school and was admitted to the Experimental Institute of Higher Graphic Instruction in 1965 — an institution that was anything but experimental; instruction proved to be totally traditional and conformist. In rebellion against these constraints, Helnwein cut his hand with a razor blade and with his own blood drew a picture of Adolf Hitler, which outraged the school administration and made the young artist aware for the first time of the potency of a picture. Soon thereafter he was dismissed from the school.
Rejecting the art tradition of the Establishment and believing in the primitive power of Trivial Art as a counter-aesthetic concept, Helnwein wanted to be admitted to the Vienna Academy of Art, where he could work autonomously in the great ateliers.
Rainer, an artist whom Helnwein holds in high esteem, was also at the time connected to the group that became known as Wiener Aktionismus. Sigmund Freud's city, sometimes referred to as the breeding ground of neurosis, gave birth to this group of artists — Günter Brus, Otto Mühl, Hermann Nitsch, Rudolf Schwarzkogler — who felt that the tachism, or action painting, they saw in the galleries could lead to direct and actual life action on the part of the artists, an attitude they shared with other artists in Europe (Mathieu, Klein), Japan (Gutai) and the U.S.A. (Happenings, Performances). Kristine Stiles has described the confrontational and cathartic aspects of these artist-actions:
The Aktionists came to the attention of the art world (and the police) only in the early 1970s, after Nitsch began his bloody performances of the "Orgies Mysteries Theater" in Schloss Prinzenhof near Vienna. The young Gottfried Helnwein was not aware of these events. As a result of his rebellious attitude towards traditional art he had isolated himself from the art world. He had never looked at an art book or magazine, never gone to a museum to see an exhibition — but he had decided that he did want to go to the Academy and develop his own kind of art.
To gain admission in 1969 he presented a painting titled "Osterwetter." Painted in soft colors and evoking a melancholy mood, it pictured two children who look very much like dolls; they have been playing with a knife with which one has killed the other. Surely, this imagery must have had its source in the pictures of bloody martyrdom that the artist was raised with in the church. This initial painting, rather naive in execution, was praised highly by Rudolf Hausner, who at once accepted Helnwein in his class. Hausner, the only professor at the Academy who was not an abstract painter, permitted his students total freedom, explaining:
En 1979, Gottfried Helnwein peint à l’aquarelle une jolie petite fille endormie sur une table; sa tête repose sur son assiette, une cuiller est à côté de sa main. Son titre, Indigne de vivre ainsi que le texte adjoint, sont partie intégrante de l’œuvre:
In 1972 Helnwein, still a student, performed his first Aktion pieces, art-theater works documented with photographs. Like much of his other art, they focused on children who were often bandaged and had wounds inflicted with surgical instruments. These Aktion events are part of a modernist tradition: art as acts of defiance against the Establishment.
The artist also saw himself as victim and martyr. As early as 1970 he had started to paint and photograph himself in an ongoing series of self-portraits, some of them life-size with bandages around his head and forks and surgical instruments piercing his mouth or cheek. Frequently the distortions of these tormented images make it difficult to recognize Helnwein's face. He appears as a screaming man, mirroring the frightening aspects of life: a twentieth-century Man of Sorrows. His frozen cry, showing the artist in a state of implacable trauma, recalls Edvard Munch's "Scream" and Francis Bacon's screaming popes. The cry in Helnwein's self-portraits is so loud that the viewer not only sees the paintings - he seems to hear them too.
Some of Helnwein's grimacing faces also recall the grotesque and wild physiognomic distortions — quite possibly also self-portraits — by the eccentric eighteenth-century Viennese sculptor Franz Xavier Messerschmidt. They could also be seen as part of the Austrian pictorial tradition that resurfaced in the perturbed and distorted expressionist faces painted by Kokoschka and Egon Schiele before World War I, reappearing in the exaggerated wild mimicry in Arnulf Rainer's "Face Farces."
Drawings and Watercolors
Toward the end of his academic studies, Helnwein produced line drawings in pencil. "Boys," "The Intrusion," "Me and You," and "Dr. Dotter" (all of 1972) are caricatures, funny people with long noses and droll expressions, which indicate his sources in the comic strip. Then a major change becomes evident in his work. In 1975 he began a series of extraordinary drawings in which he established his personal calligraphy. Hair-thin lines create thorny thickets on the page, often resulting in networks of spider webs of myriad penciled marks. They are drawn, scratched, and, at times, scraped on transparent and/or smooth paper. The result often resembles carefully executed etchings. The hard and brittle lines also create dramatic light effects, and in some of these visionary drawings, the light source appears to be within a person or object.
At first glance, the events depicted in these drawings do not seem as strange as they become on longer perusal. Like surrealist art, these drawings cannot be subjected to the rules of logic. They depict nightmares and dreams, danger and threat. It seems most fitting that Helnwein was commissioned in 1979 to furnish illustrations for a German edition of Edgar Allan Poe's macabre tales.8 The exquisite drawings in this book, with their sensitive treatment of blacks, whites, and greys, have a chiaroscuro effect reminiscent of Rembrandt's etchings.
Helnwein's drawings are essays in black humor and personal satire. W. H. Auden once remarked that satire is both angry and optimistic, postulating evil and also its potential arrogation. Helnwein's drawings embody both a sense of gruesome phantasmagoria and possible hope. To find historical precedents, we must look at Goya's "Caprichos." Here the Spanish artist of the Enlightenment pictured man's incongruities, injustices, stupidities, and cruelties, hoping that these depictions might help people to replace superstition with reason. Closer to home are the visionary and hallucinatory drawings by the Austrian artist Alfred Kubin, known for his fictive, baffling, and, at times, violent drawings. An original member of the Blue Rider group, he was banished by the Nazis as punishment for being a "degenerate artist," but continued working in isolation. In 1959, the year of his death, the Galerie St. Stephan in Vienna mounted a memorial exhibition for Kubin, who once again became a well-known artist in Austria.
«Cher docteur Gross! Alors que je regardais ‹Holocauste› (le film télévisé), je me suis souvenu d’un article du Kurier à propos de votre attitude. Or, comme nous sommes dans l’année de l’enfance, je profite de l’occasion pour vous remercier au nom des enfants qui ont été envoyés au paradis sous votre protection. Je tiens à vous remercier – et je parle en vos propres termes – de ne pas les avoir ‹éliminés par injection› mais de les avoir fait mourir simplement en mélangeant du poison à leurs repas. Recevez, Monsieur, mes salutations d’Allemagne, Gottfried Helnwein.»
The artist was also preoccupied with the image of a young girl with bandaged head and hand. She appears in a series of watercolors done in the softest of muted colors, with a predominant pale, greyish blue. "Beautiful Victim I" (1974) shows the girl lying on the floor in sunlight. In "Beautiful Victim II" (1974), she stands by a window, and in the last work of the series, "Red Mouth" (1978), we see her with forehead and chin in surgical dressing, stretched out on a white bolster and wearing a white shirt and red lipstick. Her eyes closed, she seems to be sleeping, dreaming, or suffering. This poignant picture resonates with intimations of deep pain. It is work of great sadness, reminding us of Nietzsche's remark that the "authenticity of the creative artist can supply meaning to the despair and absurdity of existence."
Photographs, Theater Designs
Helnwein, who had been using the camera to document his street actions and for self-portraiture, concentrated on photography as a major medium in his work in the early 1980s. He decided to take photographic portraits of icons of contemporary culture, both high and low, that he was particularly interested in. In 1982 he went to London to meet with the Rolling Stones, with whom he had identified when a youth in Vienna; there he took a somber photograph of Mick Jagger.
In his early photographic portraits, Helnwein's personal style becomes evident. His portraits are not idealized images like those of Edward Steichen, or grandly composed portraits, like those of Arnold Newman, who both photographed artists, composers, and writers in relation to their work. They also differ from Robert Mapplethorpe's smooth and highly finished portraits, but do relate to the incisive and poignant portraits by Richard Avedon.
Photography equipped Helnwein with a means of constructing a picture in a manner different from painting, and permitted new possibilities in the visual relationship between artist and model: the photographer can become a participant and an observer. Helnwein made an outstanding series of photos of Andy Warhol in 1983, four years before the artist's early death. Warhol, above all, had "deghettoized" photography and had shattered the traditional hierarchy that defined "art." Helnwein's portraits of him do not show the young man of easy elegance and indifferent mien, but a tragic figure facing death.
There are very few other pictures of painters among Helnwein's photographs, but pop painter Roy Lichtenstein appears, with sly, smiling eyes, and so does Keith Haring as a young man, a quizzical but intense expression on his face. The majority of the photos are of rock stars, such as Michael Jackson (beautifully coiffured), Lou Reed, and Keith Richards. The latter, prominently displaying his skull ring, Helnwein referred to as a man with "the face of a redeemer." Of course there is also the friendly face of the Disney animator Carl Barks, and one of a very relaxed Billy Wilder. There are portraits of Peter Ludwig, the foremost collector of modern art, and of the leading gallerist, a tired-looking Leo Castelli. Important political figures appear: Willy Brandt, Lech Walesa, and Simon Wiesenthal; the actors Clint Eastwood, looking somewhat wary, and Maximilian Schell, with an intense expression.
A good many writers are also included: the Austrian poet H. C. Artmann, and the East German author Heiner Müller. Helnwein had an affinity with the writings of William S. Burroughs and photographed him in Lawrence, Kansas, the unlikely place to which the exotic novelist had repaired in his old age. Burroughs insisted on bringing his revolver to the sitting, and Helnwein portrayed him with eyes closed and a sinister expression that evokes the sense of grim horror communicated in his writings. In the introduction to the catalogue of Helnwein's "Faces" for the Museum Ludwig in Cologne (1992), Burroughs stated:
"It is the function of the artist to evoke the experience of surprised recognition: to show the viewer what he knows but does not know he knows. Helnwein is a master of surprised recognition."
Cette aquarelle lui avait été suggérée par une interview au cours de laquelle un journaliste inerrogeait le Dr Heinrich Gross sur le programme nazi d’euthanasie, sur son rôle et celui d’autres médecins qui tuaient des enfants considérés comme «indignes de vivre». Gross tentait de se disculper en soutenant qu’il s’était contenté d’empoisonner leur nourriture de façon à ce que leur mort fût douce et sans douleur.
Helnwein also used his photographs of popular icons for hagiographic paintings or magazine covers; these images differ perceptibly from the original photograph; he proceeded similarly with photos of idols of the twentieth century, such as Marilyn Monroe, Joseph Beuys, and Marlene Dietrich, with whom he worked on a book about Berlin in 1991. There was also the portrait of James Dean that pictured the juvenile movie idol walking alone through slush in the early morning hours in a deserted Times Square. It became one of the painter's most popular works.
Caspar David Friedrich, a professor at the Dresden Academy, was closely associated with the Dresden circle of Romantic poets. More than a century later, in February 1945, Dresden, one of the world's most beautiful cities, was destroyed by Allied firebombing. Helnwein used a picture of the devastated city as the center panel of the triptych "Song of the Deputies" (1996). The side panels show self-portraits of the artist with a bandage over his head and eyes, and a harrowing clamp between his tongue and nose.
For eight years, from 1988 to 1996, the artist worked on a large blue monochrome, "Turkish Family," with seven people occupying the same room and appearing to sit for their photo. This social comment plumbs the deep division between the Germans and the immigrant Turkish Gastarbeiter (guest workers). There is a Turkish woman with four children — the boys wearing Mickey Mouse caps — on one side of the room, looking at the viewer as if he were behind the camera, while two German ladies, appearing very suburban in their short skirts, literally look down their noses at the immigrant family. To add to the confounding of this disparate group, there are three computers, their screens placed at random in the room.
Between 1994 and 1996 Helnwein made a series of perhaps a hundred dark-blue monochromes, which he entitled "Fire." These paintings, done in oil and acrylic and based on photographs of writers, painters, poets, composers, scientists, film makers, political activists, actors, philosophers, and pop stars, are depictions of the rebels of the twentieth century who were going against the current of the established culture of their time. These portraits are painted in the darkest blue, with a veil over the faces, making them exceedingly difficult to detect, even in daylight. They create a sense of ineffable ambiguity, and it takes time and attention to raise the faces into recognition of their identity. The obscurity of the images makes for a significant continuity between the invisible and the visible in these paintings.
With enough distance from his childhood, both in time and feeling, Helnwein was eventually able to respond to his religious upbringing in a different way. Instead of martyrs, he now avails himself of themes like the Virgin mourning over Christ's dead body or the Madonna and Child — always with the purpose of making the viewer reexamine the authority of traditional values.
The large "Pieta Lutz" (1994) depicting a father with his son stretched out on his lap, is a painting of close friends of the artist. As its name implies, it also reflects on Christian iconography. Here we have a masculine Pieta with homoerotic connotations questioning the archetypal Christian symbolism. Related to this painting is the series of dark-blue Madonna paintings. This group actually began with works in pencil, like "Virgin with Pinocchio after Bronzino," and another drawing of the Madonna with a mutilated Christ Child, after a painting by Mantegna. In 1996, again using the computer-painting and ink-jet method, Helnwein painted a series of Madonnas in which he adopted images of the Virgin and Child taken from well-known paintings by Leonardo or Caravaggio and transferred them onto the canvas, then overpainting the image with oil and acrylic, leaving it all in monochrome darkness. In these works, the paint subsumes and becomes coexistent with the photograph; it becomes a new signifier, which inverts the familiar images. The Madonna paintings no doubt presented themselves quite intuitively to this former Catholic, and they led to Helnwein's significant "Epiphany" of 1996. This large (210 x 33 cm) painting in blue monochrome depicts the Adoration of the Magi. But the Madonna is a young maiden of pure Aryan blood, and presents a Christ Child who looks like a young Adolf Hitler, and the Wise Men all wear well-tailored SS and Reichswehr uniforms, Nazi officials decorated with the Iron Cross. They stand attentively, with approving respect, next to the Virgin. The most prominent Nazi holds a document in his hands, while the soldier on the right seems to examine the child, perhaps to see whether he is circumcised. It is a powerful and very enigmatic painting, done with the eyes and brush of a realist painter.
In 1998 Helnwein expects to enlarge this work to enormous size and display a version of it at the Königsplatz, the grand neo-Grecian square that also served as the center for Nazis' mass meetings and ostentatious rituals, and which Hitler called the "community space for the Volk."
Much like Joseph Beuys, who opened new, unexpected, and far-reaching spheres for art, Gottfried Helnwein has made works that extend beyond the art scene into the social and political realm. Like his predecessor, he has moved beyond the realm of pure aesthetics, engaging his art into the everyday world. Furthermore, his principal interest is not to express personal feelings and emotions, but to make statements that go beyond the individual. He wants to see his work not trapped on the walls of museums and galleries, but revealed in the public domain. He expects his work to intervene in the social sphere and to have a direct impact on the life of his time. For this to occur, the viewer must, of course, respond to the artist's work, which is, after all, only half of the process of communication. Helnwein's paintings and photographs, so acute in their message, indeed facilitate our participation as viewers, which is necessary to complete the transmission. Using a profusion of mediums, Gottfried Helnwein leads us into an area of controversial reflection.
Quand en 1979, ce même homme devient le chef de la psychiatrie autrichienne, personne proteste. Exaspéré par cette profonde apathie politique, Helnwein peint alors cette aquarelle qu’il joint à cette lettre sarcastique, publiées dans une revue viennoise. Ce message qui enflamme les débats est sans doute à l’origine de la disgrâce de Gross qui suivit . A l’époque, Helnwein a déjà parfaitement conscience que l’art peut avoir un rapport avec la vie.
Peter Selz
Professor Emeritus, Department of Art History, University of California, Berkeley, Former Curator at the Museum of Modern Art in New York and founding director of the Berkeley Art Museum, has written extensively on contemporary art and culture, with books and articles on modern political art, Impressionism, art nouveau, German Expressionist painting, Max Beckmann, Bruce Beasley, Barbara ChaseRiboud, Eduardo Chillida, Jean Dubuffet, Friedrich Durrenmatt, Sam Francis, Alberto Giacometti, Ferdinand Hodler, Dimitri Hadzi, Gottfried Helnwein, Richard Lindner, John McLaughlin, Emil Nolde, Nathan Oliveira, Harold Paris, Mark Rothko, and Brian Wall.

vers le haut